Thank you! Your submission has been received!
Oops! Something went wrong while submitting the form.
Subscribe to the Magazine for free
Subscribe for free to keep reading! If you are already subscribed, enter your email address to log back in.
Thanks for subscribing!
Oops! Something went wrong while submitting the form.
Are you a healthcare practitioner?
Thanks for subscribing!
Oops! Something went wrong while submitting the form.

Gut Microbiome Diversity: The Cornerstone of Immune Resilience

Medically reviewed by 
Gut Microbiome Diversity: The Cornerstone of Immune Resilience

The human gut hosts an astonishing abundance of microorganisms, estimated to be around 100 trillion, surpassing the number of cells in the human body by about tenfold. There are other microbiome sites in the human body, including the skin and oral cavity, but the gut is the most populous and diverse. 

Advances in technology and research have illuminated the importance of gut microbiome diversity not only on digestive function but also on metabolism, neuroendocrine function, mental health, cognition, and immune system function. This article will dive specifically into the gut-immune system connection and how functional medicine can shape microbiome health, thereby optimizing immune resilience.


Understanding the Gut Microbiome 

The gut microbiome refers to the community of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and archaea that reside within the gastrointestinal tract. A healthy gut microbiome is characterized by a delicate balance and diversity of microbial species. The term dysbiosis refers to alterations in the composition, activity, or distribution of the microbiome within the gut. This can occur when there is a loss of beneficial bacteria, an overgrowth in potentially pathogenic organisms, a loss of overall diversity, or conditions like small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) where colon bacteria have migrated into the small intestine.

A healthy microbiome composition is integral to its vast number of functions. First and foremost, the microbiome assists in the digestion of complex carbohydrates and fibers that we cannot digest on our own. This not only allows for the absorption of essential nutrients but also the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that play a role in gut health, metabolism, mood, and cognition. 

The microorganisms also synthesize important vitamins, such as vitamin K and certain B vitamins. These vitamins are absorbed and contribute to various physiological functions in the body. The microbiome communicates bidirectionally with the brain, known as the gut-brain axis, both through direct nervous system connections as well as through its production of neurotransmitters. Not only does the microbiome communicate with the nervous system, but also the immune system, assisting in both the development and regulation of immune responses, enhancing resilience against infections, and contributing to overall immune system balance.

The Gut-Immune System Connection 

The presence of a diverse and healthy microbiome prevents pathogenic infections. Beneficial microbes outcompete harmful invaders for resources and attachment sites, helping to prevent the colonization of pathogenic species. They also produce antimicrobial substances that function like natural antibiotics, inhibiting the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. 

SCFA production by commensal bacteria maintains a slightly acidic environment in the gut, which is less favorable for the growth of pathogenic bacteria and helps to stimulate the production of secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA). Secretory IgA is an antibody that plays a crucial role in mucosal immunity, providing a first line of defense against pathogens in the mucous membranes, including the gut. 

Between 70-80% of our immune cells reside in the gut, specifically in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) within the intestinal walls, where they interact closely with the microorganisms of the microbiome. These microorganisms educate the immune system, training it to distinguish between harmful pathogens and beneficial microbes. This important characteristic of the immune system is called tolerance, in which it can recognize and coexist with harmless substances, such as beneficial microbes and the body’s own cells, without mounting harmful immune responses against them. Some important, commensal microorganisms support the development of immune cells, known as regulatory T cells, that help to balance immune responses. On the other hand, other microorganisms can stimulate immune cells that increase the production of inflammatory mediators.

The gastrointestinal lining serves as an important part of our immune system as a physical barrier. Ideally, the intestinal barrier should be semi-permeable, allowing important nutrients and water to be absorbed while preventing the translocation of microorganisms and toxins. The lining of the small intestine is composed of epithelial cells held together by tight junctions. These tight junctions play a crucial role in regulating the passage of substances. When the integrity of these tight junctions is compromised, it allows unwanted substances to enter the bloodstream. This is known as intestinal permeability or leaky gut, and it leads to increased systemic inflammation. The microbiome assists in the maintenance of the integrity of the intestinal lining through the production of mucin, a protective layer that shields the epithelial cells, and SCFA. Additionally, commensal bacteria modulate immune responses within the gut to prevent excessive inflammatory responses that could compromise the integrity of the gut lining. 

Factors Affecting Microbiome Diversity 

A diverse microbiome is characterized by an array of different microbial species, each contributing unique functions to the overall ecosystem. This ecosystem is dynamic in nature shaped by factors beyond just genetic predisposition, such as diet, lifestyle practices, medications, and environmental exposures. Understanding these factors is important in order to support diversity, which, in turn, is closely linked to our overall health and susceptibility to disease.

Birth and early feeding practices serve as foundational contributors, setting the stage for the establishment and maturation of the microbiome. The method of birth, whether vaginal or through cesarean section, profoundly influences the initial microbial colonization of the newborn. Vaginal births expose infants to maternal microbes, fostering a diverse and complex microbial landscape reflective of the mother's microbiome. In contrast, cesarean-born infants miss this exposure. Breastfeeding further shapes microbiome diversity, offering a unique blend of prebiotics and probiotics that serve as sustenance for beneficial bacteria. 

Diet is one of the most important factors influencing the composition of the microbiome throughout the lifespan. A diet rich in fiber, varied plant-based foods, and fermented products sustains microbial richness by providing a plethora of nutrients that fuel the growth of beneficial bacteria. The Western diet, characterized by the consumption of high fat, high sugar, high levels of red and processed meat, high levels of refined grains, and a lower level of fiber intake, has been linked to lower microbial diversity and species richness as well as shifts in the important bacterial species like bifidobacteria and lactobacilli (1, 20).

Lifestyle practices, including physical activity, stress management, and sleep patterns, also contribute to microbial balance. Commonly prescribed medications, especially antibiotics, but also proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), metformin, and serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) can disrupt microbial communities, underscoring the need for judicious use and consideration of their impact on microbiome health (49, 62). Environmental exposures, ranging from smoking and alcohol consumption to the pollutants found in food, air, and water, add additional layers of complexity to microbiome dynamics (1, 27).

Gut Microbiome Diversity and Disease Resistance 

Microbiome diversity has significant influence over disease resistance, not only directly thwarting infectious diseases but also fortifying the immune system and balancing inflammatory responses. Focusing on enriching the microbiome and optimizing gut health serve as important tools in disease prevention.

Commensal microbes produce antimicrobial substances and compete for resources to prevent potential pathogens from colonizing and flourishing. Furthermore, the microbiome educates and modulates the immune system, ensuring a balanced response to threats. Decreased microbiome diversity is associated with increased susceptibility to various immune conditions, including infections, allergic diseases, and autoimmune disorders.

Beyond its role in infectious diseases, the microbiome's impact on inflammation holds significant implications for the development of chronic inflammatory conditions. Inflammation is a fundamental component of the immune response, serving as the body's natural defense mechanism against infection, injury, or harmful stimuli. However, chronic inflammation, when the immune system remains activated for prolonged periods, is implicated in the development and progression of common chronic conditions like cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, autoimmune diseases, neurological disorders, and obesity. Dysbiosis and intestinal permeability increase the translocation of bacterial products, like endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), that overstimulate immune cells, leading to the overproduction of inflammatory messengers called cytokines (17).

Functional Medicine Lab Testing for Microbiome Analysis

There are various functional medicine lab tests to analyze the microbiome, allowing for a comprehensive understanding of its composition and function.

Intestinal Permeability Screen

Cyrex’s Array 2, also known as the Intestinal Antigenic Permeability Screen, measures antibodies against specific proteins, such as occludin and zonulin, associated with the gastrointestinal lining. Elevations in these antibodies are suggestive of gut barrier damage and intestinal permeability. 

Organic Acid Test (OAT)

The Organic Acids test (OAT) by Mosaic Diagnostics measures organic acids in the urine, which are metabolic byproducts made as part of the body’s normal cellular metabolism. Certain organic acids are byproducts of microbial metabolism specifically, so elevations are suggestive of dysbiosis.

Breath Test

The trio-smart SIBO Breath test by Gemelli Biotech is used to diagnose bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine, called SIBO. Patients drink a solution of lactulose, which is a highly fermentable carbohydrate not absorbed in the small intestine. Over the next few hours, the patient provides periodic breath samples, which are analyzed for the presence of gasses produced by bacterial fermentation. Under normal circumstances, there are low levels of bacteria in the small intestine and minimal production of gas. Therefore, elevations in these gasses during the test collection period suggest that bacteria have migrated from the colon into the small intestine, causing SIBO.


Functional Medicine Approach to Enhancing Microbiome Diversity & Immune Resilience 

Functional medicine recognizes the intricate connections between our environment, lifestyle choices, nutritional habits, and gut health. Functional medicine testing identifies potential weaknesses that can be addressed using personalized gut health strategies that enhance microbiome diversity and improve immune resilience.

Dietary Interventions 

Fiber is found in plant foods, such as whole grains, vegetables, fruit, and legumes. Humans are not able to digest these dietary fibers on their own, and instead, they are fermented by bacteria in the colon. Individuals who consume plant-based, high-fiber diets consistently show better microbial diversity and richness. 

A Mediterranean-style diet is characterized by a high intake of whole grains, vegetables, legumes, fruits, and nuts that are not only high in fiber but also important fatty acids with anti-inflammatory properties. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet has been shown to reshape the microbiome, increasing the populations of important SCFA-producing bacteria. Enriched with compounds like vitamins, phytonutrients such as polyphenols and flavonoids, and β-Glucans from the highlighted plant foods, this dietary approach supports optimal immune system function. 

Diets that emphasize fermented foods also improve microbiome diversity and reduce inflammatory cytokines. The bioactive compounds found in fermented foods protect against infections by modulating immune cells like lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Fermented foods include yogurt, kefir, sauerkraut, pickles, miso, tempeh, natto, and kimchi.

Lifestyle Modifications

Physical activity exerts a positive influence on microbiome composition. Active individuals tend to have higher levels of health-promoting bacterial species and increased bacterial diversity (41). Physical activity can also directly strengthen the immune system through mechanisms like increasing white blood cell recruitment and circulation as well as modulating cytokine release. 

Sleep disruption can decrease the number of beneficial, health-promoting bacteria in the gut while increasing the number of potentially pathogenic organisms. Regular sleep is also critical for maintaining normal immune system integrity, with deprivation resulting in dysregulated immune responses, increased inflammation, and higher susceptibility to infection and inflammatory diseases. The recommended sleep duration for adults is between 7-9 hours. Some simple sleep hygiene recommendations to improve sleep quality include sticking to a consistent sleep schedule, getting daytime natural light exposure, making sure the bedroom is cool, dark, and quiet, limiting screen exposure in the evenings, and avoiding heavy meals and caffeine too close to bedtime.

Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in the release of the hormone cortisol. This activation of the HPA axis negatively impacts microbiome diversity and can increase intestinal permeability. Chronic stress is also immunosuppressive, decreasing the number of white blood cells we have to protect us from infection. Techniques like mind-body therapies help to regulate HPA axis activation and cortisol levels. These practices can include practices such as meditation, mindfulness-based practices, yoga, guided imagery, progressive muscle relaxation, biofeedback, and breathing exercises. 

Prebiotics & Probiotics

Probiotics consist of living microorganisms, commonly bacteria or yeast, similar to those naturally residing in the human gut. Whether consumed through diet or supplements, they confer health advantages such as sustaining a well-balanced and diverse gut microbiome, fostering optimal digestion, and fortifying the body's immune system (33).

Prebiotics, on the other hand, are non-digestible dietary compounds, often derived from carbohydrates or fiber, that stimulate the growth and activity of crucial microorganisms in the gut. Naturally occurring in certain foods like fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes, prebiotics can also be obtained through supplements. Notable prebiotic supplements include inulin, fructooligosaccharides (FOS), resistant starch, and galactooligosaccharides (GOS). In addition to their support of important commensal microorganisms, they contribute to upholding the integrity of the gut barrier and optimizing immune activity. This involves regulating the secretion of cytokines and the activation of vital immune cells, including regulatory T-cells.

Omega 3s

Omega-3 fatty acids are essential nutrients involved in proper cell structure and function and regulating inflammatory signaling. The most bioactive forms of omega-3 fatty acids are Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA), found in fatty fish. The standard American diet tends to be low in omega-3 fatty acids. In the gut, omega-3 fatty acids can influence microbiome diversity, decrease inflammatory cytokines and endotoxin (LPS), and regulate the production of SCFAs. 

Well-known for their anti-inflammatory properties, omega-3s play a pivotal role in modulating the immune response by competing with pro-inflammatory omega-6 fatty acids in cell membranes to influence the production of cytokines. Through this regulation of inflammatory pathways, omega-3s may reduce the risk of chronic inflammatory conditions. Moreover, these fatty acids impact the function of immune cells, including B cells, T cells, and macrophages, enhancing their activity and promoting a more effective immune defense. Beyond improving immune cell function, omega-3 fatty acids also assist in neutralizing free radicals and protecting immune cells from oxidative stress. 

Vitamin D

In the gut, vitamin D modulates the composition of the microbiome, regulates the secretion of antimicrobial peptides, and protects intestinal barrier integrity (2). Vitamin D also exerts multiple beneficial effects on our immune system, and deficiency is associated with higher rates of both autoimmune diseases and infections. While the sun is a natural source of vitamin D, dietary sources and supplements can be helpful for individuals with limited sun exposure. Given the variability in individuals’ capacity to synthesize vitamin D, collaboration with a healthcare provider is important to determine if there is a need for supplementation and create a regimen that aligns with specific needs.


Colostrum is the first milk produced after birth. It contains immunoglobulins, peptides, and growth factors that support newborns’ developing immune systems. Bovine colostrum supplementation has emerged as a way to boost both gut and immune health. It contains growth factors that facilitate the repair and regeneration of the intestinal lining, preventing intestinal permeability. Its impact on the immune system is multifaceted, modulating the function of important immune cells like lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Additionally, colostrum increases regulatory cytokines, fostering a balanced immune response. Packed with immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, and diverse peptides, it neutralizes harmful microorganisms and prevents infectious illnesses (26, 29, 32).

L Glutamine

Glutamine is an amino acid used throughout the body. In the gut, it supports intestinal cell growth, regulates intestinal barrier function, balances inflammatory signaling pathways, protects intestinal cells against apoptosis (cell death), and balances the microbiome. L-glutamine also helps to strengthen the immune system, supporting wound healing and preventing infections.

Challenges and Future Directions 

In its early stages, microbiome research primarily concentrated on describing the compositions of microbiomes and establishing correlations to human health. More recent research has shifted focus toward the microbiome’s mechanisms of action in the body and how it co-evolves with humans. While research thus far has primarily focused on bacteria, there is growing recognition of the need to extend attention to other microorganisms, including fungi, viruses, archaea, and protozoa. Future endeavors should continue to explore the potential of microbial-based therapeutics in personalized medicine, recognizing the microbiome's dual role as a modulator of therapies as well as a potential target of therapies. The gut microbiome's involvement in metabolizing various chemicals underscores its critical role in determining drug availability, efficacy, and toxicity, rendering it indispensable in the pursuit of personalized drug therapies. Additionally, the ability to manipulate the microbiome holds promise for the development of personalized treatment strategies for diseases, leveraging precision microbiome-targeting approaches such as probiotics, prebiotics, and fecal microbiome transplantation (FMT).

Microbiome research grapples with a significant challenge stemming from the divergent approaches to sample collection, processing, and analysis adopted across different studies. This lack of standardization not only complicates the precise interpretation of microbiome-related observations but also hinders the generalization and reproducibility of findings. Addressing this challenge requires synchronizing methodologies to enhance the reliability and comparability of microbiome research results. Moreover, the substantial individual variability in microbiome compositions poses difficulty in establishing a universal standard for optimal immune function, necessitating personalized approaches that consider factors like genetics, diet, lifestyle, and environmental exposures. Another significant hurdle is the shift from merely associating microbiome traits with human conditions to establishing causation, a transition that future research endeavors hold promise in addressing. Technological advancements, particularly in metagenomics, offer opportunities for more in-depth analyses, empowering researchers to unravel the intricacies of the gut-immune axis (23, 37, 54, 60).


How Gut Microbiome Diversity is Key For Immune Resilience

The microbiome plays a pivotal role in supporting immune function, exerting influence not only on disease resistance but also on the regulation of chronic inflammatory conditions. Prioritizing a diverse and balanced gut microbiome is crucial in supporting optimal immune health. Functional medicine provides a holistic and personalized approach to optimize the gut-immune axis. By taking into account unique elements such as diet, environmental factors, lifestyle choices, and the distinct composition of one's microbiome, functional medicine emerges as a comprehensive strategy to fortify and enhance the gut-immune connection.

The information provided is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always consult with your doctor or other qualified healthcare provider before taking any dietary supplement or making any changes to your diet or exercise routine.
Learn More
No items found.

Lab Tests in This Article


  1. Ahn, J., & Hayes, R. B. (2021). Environmental influences on the human microbiome and implications for Noncommunicable Disease. Annual Review of Public Health, 42(1), 277–292.
  2. Akimbekov, N. S., Digel, I., Sherelkhan, D. K., Lutfor, A. B., & Razzaque, M. S. (2020). Vitamin D and the Host-Gut Microbiome: A Brief Overview. Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica, 53(3), 33–42.
  3. Anderson, S. (2022, July 8). Over 40% of Americans are deficient in this vitamin: Here are the symptoms to look out for. Rupa Health.
  4. Aranow, C. (2012). Vitamin D and the Immune System. Journal of Investigative Medicine, 59(6), 881–886.
  5. Chandwe, K., & Kelly, P. (2021). Colostrum therapy for human gastrointestinal health and disease. Nutrients, 13(6), 1956.
  6. Christie, J. (2022, December 13). 95% of American’s aren’t getting enough fiber: How many grams should we be consuming per day? Rupa Health.
  7. Cloyd, J. (2023, February 28). A functional medicine protocol for Leaky Gut Syndrome. Rupa Health.
  8. Cloyd, J. (2023, April 20). Antibiotics 101: What you need to know. Rupa Health.
  9. Cloyd, J. (2023, May 4). A functional medicine SIBO protocol: Testing and treatment. Rupa Health.
  10. Corthésy, B. (2013). Multi-faceted functions of secretory IGA at mucosal surfaces. Frontiers in Immunology, 4.
  11. da Silveira, M. P., da Silva Fagundes, K. K., Bizuti, M. R., Starck, É., Rossi, R. C., & de Resende e Silva, D. T. (2020). Physical exercise as a tool to help the immune system against COVID-19: An integrative review of the current literature. Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 21(1), 15–28.
  12. DeCesaris, L. (2022, June 6). What is gut dysbiosis? 7 signs to watch for. Rupa Health.
  13. DePorto, T. (2023, January 4). How to start the microbiome diet to support your gut microbiome. Rupa Health.
  14. DePorto, T. (2023, January 6). Omega 3’s: The Superfood nutrient you need to know about. Rupa Health.
  15. Deters, B. J., & Saleem, M. (2021). The role of glutamine in supporting gut health and neuropsychiatric factors. Food Science and Human Wellness, 10(2), 149–154.
  16. Dhabhar, F. S. (2008). Enhancing versus suppressive effects of stress on immune function: Implications for immunoprotection versus immunopathology. Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology, 4(1).
  17. Di Vincenzo, F., Del Gaudio, A., Petito, V., Lopetuso, L. R., & Scaldaferri, F. (2023). Gut microbiota, intestinal permeability, and systemic inflammation: A narrative review. Internal and Emergency Medicine.
  18. Diorio, B. (2022, August 11). If you experience anxiety, GI discomfort, or irritability you may have a neurotransmitter imbalance. Rupa Health.
  19. Diorio, B. (2023, April 7). Could your patients benefits from the Phytonutrient Spectrum Food Plan?. Rupa Health.
  20. Ferranti, E. P., Dunbar, S. B., Dunlop, A. L., & Corwin, E. J. (2014). 20 things you didn’t know about the human gut microbiome. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 29(6), 479–481.
  21. Fu, J., Zheng, Y., Gao, Y., & Xu, W. (2022). Dietary fiber intake and gut microbiota in human health. Microorganisms, 10(12), 2507.
  22. Fu, Y., Wang, Y., Gao, H., Li, D., Jiang, R., Ge, L., Tong, C., & Xu, K. (2021). Associations among dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, the gut microbiota, and intestinal immunity. Mediators of Inflammation, 2021, 1–11.
  23. Gao, Y., Li, D., & Liu, Y.-X. (2023). Microbiome research outlook: Past, present, and future. Protein & Cell, 14(10), 709–712.
  24. Garbarino, S., Lanteri, P., Bragazzi, N. L., Magnavita, N., & Scoditti, E. (2021). Role of sleep deprivation in immune-related disease risk and outcomes. Communications Biology, 4(1).
  25. García-Montero, C., Fraile-Martínez, O., Gómez-Lahoz, A. M., Pekarek, L., Castellanos, A. J., Noguerales-Fraguas, F., Coca, S., Guijarro, L. G., García-Honduvilla, N., Asúnsolo, A., Sanchez-Trujillo, L., Lahera, G., Bujan, J., Monserrat, J., Álvarez-Mon, M., Álvarez-Mon, M. A., & Ortega, M. A. (2021). Nutritional components in western diet versus Mediterranean diet at the gut microbiota–immune system interplay. implications for health and disease. Nutrients, 13(2), 699.
  26. Ghosh, S., & Iacucci, M. (2021). Diverse immune effects of bovine colostrum and benefits in human health and disease. Nutrients, 13(11), 3798.
  27. Giambò, F., Costa, C., Teodoro, M., & Fenga, C. (2022). Role-playing between environmental pollutants and human gut microbiota: A complex bidirectional interaction. Frontiers in Medicine, 9.
  28. Groschwitz, K. R., & Hogan, S. P. (2009). Intestinal barrier function: Molecular regulation and disease pathogenesis. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 124(1), 3–20.
  29. Guberti, M., Botti, S., Capuzzo, M. T., Nardozi, S., Fusco, A., Cera, A., Dugo, L., Piredda, M., & De Marinis, M. G. (2021). Bovine colostrum applications in sick and healthy people: A systematic review. Nutrients, 13(7), 2194.
  30. Gutiérrez, S., Svahn, S. L., & Johansson, M. E. (2019). Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on immune cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 20(20), 5028.
  31. Han, P., Gu, J.-Q., Li, L.-S., Wang, X.-Y., Wang, H.-T., Wang, Y., Chang, C., & Sun, J.-L. (2021). The association between intestinal bacteria and allergic diseases—cause or consequence? Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 11.
  32. Hałasa, M., Maciejewska, D., Baśkiewicz-Hałasa, M., Machaliński, B., Safranow, K., & Stachowska, E. (2017). Oral supplementation with bovine colostrum decreases intestinal permeability and stool concentrations of zonulin in athletes. Nutrients, 9(4), 370.
  33. Hemarajata, P., & Versalovic, J. (2012). Effects of probiotics on gut microbiota: Mechanisms of intestinal immunomodulation and neuromodulation. Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology, 6(1), 39–51.
  34. Hirshkowitz, M., Whiton, K., Albert, S. M., Alessi, C., Bruni, O., DonCarlos, L., Hazen, N., Herman, J., Adams Hillard, P. J., Katz, E. S., Kheirandish-Gozal, L., Neubauer, D. N., O’Donnell, A. E., Ohayon, M., Peever, J., Rawding, R., Sachdeva, R. C., Setters, B., Vitiello, M. V., & Ware, J. C. (2015). National Sleep Foundation’s updated Sleep duration recommendations: Final report. Sleep Health, 1(4), 233–243.
  35. Iacob, S., & Iacob, D. G. (2019). Infectious threats, the intestinal barrier, and its Trojan horse: Dysbiosis. Frontiers in Microbiology, 10.
  36. Kamada, N., Chen, G. Y., Inohara, N., & Núñez, G. (2013). Control of pathogens and pathobionts by the gut microbiota. Nature Immunology, 14(7), 685–690.
  37. Kashyap, P. C., Chia, N., Nelson, H., Segal, E., & Elinav, E. (2017). Microbiome at the frontier of Personalized Medicine. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 92(12), 1855–1864.
  38. Khakham, C. (2023, April 6). Understanding your risk of cardiovascular disease with Functional Medicine Labs. Rupa Health.
  39. Khakham, C. (2023, October 13). What are the global impacts of the Western Diet on health?. Rupa Health.
  40. Kim, M.-H., & Kim, H. (2017). The roles of glutamine in the intestine and its implication in intestinal diseases. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 18(5), 1051.
  41. Koutouratsas, T., Philippou, A., Kolios, G., Koutsilieris, M., & Gazouli, M. (2021). Role of exercise in preventing and restoring gut dysbiosis in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases: A Review. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 27(30), 5037–5046.
  42. Liu, L., Li, Q., Yang, Y., & Guo, A. (2021). Biological function of short-chain fatty acids and its regulation on intestinal health of poultry. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 8.
  43. LoBisco, S. (2022, September 16). Gut-Brain Axis: Understanding the gut-brain connection. Rupa Health.
  44. LoBisco, S. (2022, December 14). Building a healthy microbiome from birth. Rupa Health.
  45. Maholy, N. (2023, February 22). Improving gut health with exercise. Rupa Health.
  46. Maholy, N. (2023, April 14). How to reduce stress through mind-body therapies. Rupa Health.
  47. Maholy, N. (2023, May 12). A Functional Medicine Immune Support Protocol. Rupa Health.
  48. Maholy, N. (2023, June 29). The role of probiotics and prebiotics in Gut Health: An integrative perspective. Rupa Health.
  49. Mihajlovic, J., Leutner, M., Hausmann, B., Kohl, G., Schwarz, J., Röver, H., Stimakovits, N., Wolf, P., Maruszczak, K., Bastian, M., Kautzky‐Willer, A., & Berry, D. (2021). Combined hormonal contraceptives are associated with minor changes in composition and diversity in gut microbiota of Healthy Women. Environmental Microbiology, 23(6), 3037–3047.
  50. Mousa, W. K., Chehadeh, F., & Husband, S. (2022). Microbial dysbiosis in the gut drives systemic autoimmune diseases. Frontiers in Immunology, 13.
  51. Mörbe, U. M., Jørgensen, P. B., Fenton, T. M., von Burg, N., Riis, L. B., Spencer, J., & Agace, W. W. (2021). Human gut-associated lymphoid tissues (galt); diversity, structure, and function. Mucosal Immunology, 14(4), 793–802.
  52. Nagpal, R., Shively, C. A., Register, T. C., Craft, S., & Yadav, H. (2019). Gut microbiome-mediterranean diet interactions in improving host health. F1000Research, 8, 699.
  53. Pujari, R., & Banerjee, G. (2020). Impact of prebiotics on immune response: From the bench to the clinic. Immunology & Cell Biology, 99(3), 255–273.
  54. Puschhof, J., & Elinav, E. (2023). Human microbiome research: Growing pains and future promises. PLOS Biology, 21(3).
  55. Shim, J. A., Ryu, J. H., Jo, Y., & Hong, C. (2023). The role of gut microbiota in T cell immunity and immune mediated disorders. International Journal of Biological Sciences, 19(4), 1178–1191.
  56. Sun, J., Fang, D., Wang, Z., & Liu, Y. (2023). Sleep deprivation and gut microbiota dysbiosis: Current understandings and implications. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 24(11), 9603.
  57. Sweetnich, J. (2023, February 22). How stress affects our gut health. Rupa Health.
  58. Sweetnich, J. (2023, April 25). Complementary and integrative medicine approaches to type 2 diabetes management. Rupa Health.
  59. Varsha, K. K., Narisetty, V., Brar, K. K., Madhavan, A., Alphy, M. P., Sindhu, R., Awasthi, M. K., Varjani, S., & Binod, P. (2022). Bioactive metabolites in functional and fermented foods and their role as immunity booster and anti-viral innate mechanisms. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 60(9), 2309–2318.
  60. Wade, K. H., & Hall, L. J. (2020). Improving causality in microbiome research: Can human genetic epidemiology help? Wellcome Open Research, 4, 199.
  61. Wastyk, H. C., Fragiadakis, G. K., Perelman, D., Dahan, D., Merrill, B. D., Yu, F. B., Topf, M., Gonzalez, C. G., Van Treuren, W., Han, S., Robinson, J. L., Elias, J. E., Sonnenburg, E. D., Gardner, C. D., & Sonnenburg, J. L. (2021). Gut-microbiota-targeted diets modulate human immune status. Cell, 184(16).
  62. Weersma, R. K., Zhernakova, A., & Fu, J. (2020). Interaction between drugs and the gut microbiome. Gut, 69(8), 1510–1519.
  63. Weinberg, J. L. (2022, November 16). What is the Mediterranean Diet?. Rupa Health.
  64. Weinberg, J. L. (2022, December 19). How short chain fatty acids affect our mood, digestion, and metabolism. Rupa Health.
  65. Weinberg, J. L. (2023, October 27). The relationship between gut health and weight balance. Rupa Health.
  66. Wiertsema, S. P., van Bergenhenegouwen, J., Garssen, J., & Knippels, L. M. (2021). The interplay between the gut microbiome and the immune system in the context of infectious diseases throughout life and the role of Nutrition in Optimizing Treatment Strategies. Nutrients, 13(3), 886.
  67. Yoshimura, H. (2023, October 25). From belly to brain: How men’s gut health influences cognition and mood. Rupa Health. 
Subscribe to the Magazine for free. to keep reading!
Subscribe for free to keep reading, If you are already subscribed, enter your email address to log back in.
Thanks for subscribing!
Oops! Something went wrong while submitting the form.
Are you a healthcare practitioner?
Thanks for subscribing!
Oops! Something went wrong while submitting the form.