Thank you! Your submission has been received!
Oops! Something went wrong while submitting the form.
Subscribe to the Magazine for free
Subscribe for free to keep reading! If you are already subscribed, enter your email address to log back in.
Thanks for subscribing!
Oops! Something went wrong while submitting the form.
Are you a healthcare practitioner?
Thanks for subscribing!
Oops! Something went wrong while submitting the form.

Functional Medicine Approach to Treatment of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Symptoms

Medically reviewed by 
Functional Medicine Approach to Treatment of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Symptoms

Affecting an estimated 17 to 24 million people worldwide, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating condition that continues to challenge medical professionals. Characterized by persistent fatigue, poor concentration, and other unexplained symptoms, common treatments like medications and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) can provide some relief. Still, many individuals seek additional support to improve their quality of life.

A functional medicine approach to treating Chronic Fatigue Syndrome offers a comprehensive and individualized strategy by integrating conventional treatments with complementary therapies like nutrition, stress management, and sleep optimization. This approach addresses not only the physical symptoms but also the underlying factors contributing to the condition, including genetic, environmental, and lifestyle influences. By considering all aspects of a person's health and well-being, a functional medicine approach can provide a more effective and holistic way of managing Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.


What is Chronic Fatigue Syndrome?

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), also known as Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) or Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease (SEID), is a complex, multifaceted, and often misunderstood medical condition. This condition affects millions of people worldwide, significantly impacting their daily lives, overall well-being, and ability to carry out routine tasks.

The hallmark of CFS is extreme, persistent, and unexplained fatigue that lasts six months or longer. The fatigue experienced by individuals with CFS is not alleviated by rest and cannot be attributed to any other underlying medical condition. Due to the absence of specific diagnostic tests and the overlap of symptoms with other illnesses, diagnosing CFS can be a challenging and lengthy process.

In addition to fatigue, individuals with CFS may experience a wide range of other symptoms, including cognitive difficulties, sleep disturbances, muscle and joint pain, headaches, and flu-like symptoms, among others. These symptoms often worsen after physical or mental exertion, a phenomenon known as post-exertional malaise.

The exact cause of CFS remains unknown, and researchers continue to investigate potential contributing factors, such as viral infections, immune system dysfunction, hormonal imbalances, and genetic predisposition. While there is no known cure for CFS, treatment approaches typically focus on symptom management and improving the quality of life for affected individuals. These may include a combination of lifestyle modifications, psychological therapies, and medications to address specific symptoms.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Symptoms

While Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) can affect individuals differently, many experience multiple symptoms associated with the condition. However, it's important to note that not all people with CFS will experience these, and there is a wide range in the presentation of patients with CFS.

Common symptoms include (14,15,69):

  • Persistent, unexplained fatigue lasting for six months or longer
  • Pain
  • Cognitive difficulties, such as memory and concentration problems (often referred to as "brain fog")
  • Sleep disturbances, including unrefreshing sleep or insomnia
  • Muscle and joint pain without swelling or redness
  • Headaches, often of a new type or severity
  • Sore throat and tender lymph nodes, especially in the neck
  • Post-exertional malaise, a worsening of symptoms after physical or mental exertion
  • Dizziness or lightheadedness, especially when standing or sitting up (orthostatic intolerance)
  • Sensitivity to foods, odors, or chemicals
  • Gastrointestinal issues, such as bloating, nausea, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
  • Depression or anxiety related to chronic fatigue and other symptoms
  • Flu-like symptoms, including chills, night sweats, and low-grade fever

It is essential to remember that CFS symptoms can vary in intensity and may fluctuate over time. Individuals with CFS have varied experiences; they may experience periods of improvement followed by relapses or worsening of symptoms.

Possible Causes of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

While the exact cause isn't known, some known associations are likely contributing to this condition.

Viral Infections

Some researchers believe that certain viral infections, such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), and enteroviruses, could trigger Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Although no definitive link has been established, several studies have found a higher prevalence of these viruses in individuals with CFS compared to the general population.

Micronutrient Deficiencies

In older adults, micronutrient deficiencies are increasingly being recognized as a potential factor contributing to fatigue. Some experts suggest that insufficient levels of vital nutrients, such as iron, vitamin B12, and magnesium, could be linked to the onset of fatigue in this population.

Immune System Dysfunction

Another possible cause of CFS is immune system dysfunction. Some studies have observed irregularities in the immune systems of individuals with CFS, such as a reduced response to infection or increased production of inflammatory cytokines. This could contribute to the fatigue and other symptoms experienced by those with the condition.

Leaky Gut

Recent research has found a connection between a leaky gut and CFS. When treated for a leaky gut, patients with CFS have shown an improvement in symptoms.

Hormonal Imbalances

Hormonal imbalances have also been proposed as a potential cause of CFS. Research has found that some individuals with CFS have abnormal levels of hormones produced in the hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal glands. These imbalances could potentially contribute to the symptoms of the condition.

Stress and Emotional Trauma

Stress and emotional trauma have been suggested as potential triggers for CFS. Some individuals with the condition report experiencing a significantly stressful event or emotional trauma prior to the onset of their symptoms.

Environmental Factors

Environmental factors, such as exposure to toxins, allergens, or pollutants, have been considered possible contributors to CFS.

What Functional Medicine Labs Can Test for Root Cause of Chronic Fatigue?

Functional medicine labs can help practitioners discover some of the underlying contributors to CFS. Below are some of the most helpful labs run by practitioners:

Infectious Panel

Ongoing research investigates the connection between viral and bacterial infections and fibromyalgia. While it is known that infections can trigger or worsen fibromyalgia, the precise mechanisms are not fully comprehended. Studies have shown that infections such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), hepatitis C, HIV, and Lyme disease can activate an abnormal immune response, leading to persistent inflammation. To identify chronic infections contributing to fibromyalgia development and symptom severity, an infectious panel, such as the Array 12 from Cyrex, can be ordered to screen for immune activation against various infectious agents.

DUTCH Complete

The DUTCH Complete test by Precision Analytical is an all-encompassing assessment tool for examining hormone levels, adrenal function, and additional markers pertinent to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Chronic stress has been identified as a risk factor for CFS, as it can result in weakened immune function and heightened inflammation within the body. The DUTCH Complete test evaluates various hormones and metabolites in your urine sample, including estrogen, progesterone, cortisol, DHEA-S, testosterone, and melatonin, all of which can influence CFS development and symptoms. Hormonal imbalances have been connected to CFS, and the DUTCH Complete test can offer insights into any imbalances that may be contributing to symptoms. Furthermore, the test measures your cortisol awakening response (CAR) and organic acids that indicate your neurotransmitter and nutrient status, offering a more holistic view of your overall health and potential factors underlying your CFS. By analyzing these markers, the DUTCH Complete test can aid in designing targeted treatments and lifestyle modifications to alleviate stress, balance hormones, and enhance overall well-being.


The hs-CRP marker by Access Medical Laboratories evaluates high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), an inflammation marker with greater sensitivity than standard CRP. Examining hs-CRP levels is essential for individuals with CFS, as the condition is linked to ongoing inflammation. People with CFS often exhibit elevated hs-CRP levels, a critical indicator of inflammation within the body. This test tracks inflammation levels and gauges the efficacy of treatment strategies aimed at diminishing inflammation.

Adrenocortex Stress Profile

The Adrenocortex Stress Profile by Genova Diagnostics is an in-depth assessment designed to evaluate adrenal function and stress hormone levels. This test measures key hormones, such as cortisol and DHEA, which play critical roles in stress response, immune function, and energy regulation – factors that can impact individuals with CFS. By understanding your body's stress hormone levels and adrenal function, you can work with your doctor to create targeted interventions, including lifestyle modifications and stress management techniques, that may help mitigate the effects of CFS and improve your overall well-being.

Heavy Metals Test

The 24-hour Urine Heavy Metals Test by Access Medical Laboratories evaluates the concentrations of 21 different heavy metals in your urine over a day-long period. The accumulation of heavy metals, such as lead, mercury, arsenic, and cadmium, in your body can have toxic effects on your health. This test can assist those with CFS in assessing and tracking their exposure to heavy metals, as well as their body's detoxification capabilities. By identifying potential heavy metal exposure, CFS patients can work on reducing their exposure and implementing detoxification strategies that may help alleviate symptoms and improve overall well-being.


The GI-MAP is a stool test by Diagnostic Solutions that can help assess gut health by measuring various markers. One of these markers is Zonulin, which can indicate the presence of leaky gut. Research suggests that a leaky gut may lead to autoimmune conditions and inflammatory conditions, leading to conditions such as CFS. Some studies have found that improved symptoms can accompany the normalization of leaky gut in CFS patients.

Additional Labs to Check  

If a person with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome is struggling with sleep issues and applying appropriate sleep hygiene techniques does not result in improvements, they may want to consider participating in a sleep study. A sleep study can help detect any underlying sleep disorders, such as sleep apnea or insomnia, that might be contributing to their sleep difficulties. Prompt identification and treatment of these sleep disorders can greatly improve sleep quality and overall well-being for individuals with CFS.


Conventional Treatment for Chronic Fatigue

There is no definitive cure for CFS, and conventional treatment approaches have not established a standard treatment protocol. Instead, treatments focus on alleviating symptoms and improving quality of life. Some CFS-related issues can be managed with specific medications, such as antidepressants for depression and sleep improvement and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for pain relief.

Functional Medicine Treatment for Chronic Fatigue

Here are some of the most important functional medicine treatments practitioners recommend for Chronic Fatigue:

Lifestyle Modifications

Lifestyle modifications play a crucial role in managing CFS symptoms and improving the quality of life for patients. One essential aspect is incorporating regular, gentle exercise tailored to the individual's capacity. Appropriate exercise can help improve energy levels, maintain muscle strength, and support overall well-being. Activities such as walking, swimming, and low-impact yoga can be adjusted to suit the patient's ability and gradually increase over time.

Stress management is vital for CFS patients, as stress can exacerbate symptoms and hinder recovery. Incorporating stress management techniques such as mindfulness meditation, yoga, deep breathing exercises, and journaling can help patients manage stress, reduce anxiety, and promote relaxation.

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) can aid in rebalancing hormones for various conditions. Detoxification strategies, including liver function enhancement, dietary adjustments, and targeted supplementation, help eliminate toxins and lessen their impact. Identifying and avoiding allergenic or sensitive foods is essential for reducing inflammation and boosting overall health. Guided elimination diets can pinpoint problematic foods, leading to personalized nutrition plans that promote well-being.

Sleep hygiene is particularly important for CFS patients, as sleep disturbances and poor sleep quality are common issues. Good sleep hygiene practices, such as maintaining a consistent sleep schedule, creating a comfortable and cool sleep environment, avoiding stimulants and screens before bedtime, and establishing a relaxing bedtime routine, can help promote restorative sleep and improve overall health.

Nutritional Interventions

Dietary changes can play a significant role in managing CFS symptoms and supporting recovery. Consuming nutrient-dense foods that provide energy and support immune function can be beneficial. A diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats, such as omega-3 fatty acids found in fish, nuts, and seeds, can help reduce inflammation, support cognitive function, and improve overall well-being.

Probiotics and prebiotics may also help support gut health, which can significantly impact CFS symptoms. Probiotics are live bacteria that help restore the balance of gut bacteria, while prebiotics are dietary fibers that feed the beneficial bacteria in the gut, helping them thrive. Incorporating fermented foods like yogurt, kefir, sauerkraut, and kimchi, or taking a high-quality probiotic supplement, can support a healthy gut microbiome.

Supplements & Herbs

Certain supplements and herbs can provide additional support for CFS patients. For example, magnesium and vitamin B12 supplements can support energy production, reduce fatigue, and improve cognitive function. Adaptogenic herbs, like Ashwagandha and Rhodiola, may help the body adapt to stress, support the adrenal glands, and improve overall resilience. Recent research has also shown a possible benefit in supplementing Coenzyme Q10 with selenium, as the combination may help modulate oxidative stress and inflammation, reducing overall fatigue severity.

D-ribose is another supplement that has shown promise in helping CFS patients. It is a sugar molecule involved in energy production and has been found to reduce fatigue and improve energy levels in some studies.

Complementary and Integrative Medicine for CFS Patients

Acupuncture, a traditional Chinese medicine technique, involves inserting thin needles into specific points on the body to balance energy flow and improve overall health. For CFS patients, acupuncture may help alleviate chronic pain, reduce fatigue, and improve sleep quality. Some studies suggest that acupuncture can help modulate the immune system and improve the body's response to stress.

Massage therapy offers a range of benefits for CFS patients, including reducing muscle tension, improving circulation, and promoting relaxation. Regular massage sessions can help patients manage stress, support their immune systems, and enhance overall well-being.

Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a structured program that teaches mindfulness meditation and other techniques. Research has shown that MBSR can help CFS patients manage stress, anxiety, and depression, improving the overall quality of life. Regular mindfulness meditation can also help patients develop greater self-awareness and coping skills to manage their symptoms better.

Tai chi and gentle yoga are additional low-impact exercise options that can be particularly beneficial for CFS patients. Both practices combine slow, controlled movements with deep breathing and meditation, helping to improve balance, flexibility, and muscle strength while reducing stress and promoting mental clarity.

Biofeedback is another CIM therapy that may be helpful for some CFS patients. Biofeedback techniques involve monitoring physiological functions such as heart rate, muscle tension, and skin temperature and learning to control these functions to reduce stress and improve overall well-being. Biofeedback effectively manages chronic pain, anxiety, and sleep disturbances, common symptoms in CFS patients.

Therapy can play a vital role in helping individuals with CFS manage their symptoms and improve their overall quality of life. Engaging in therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or counseling, can provide valuable support in coping with the emotional and psychological challenges associated with CFS.



Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is a complex and often misunderstood condition that significantly impacts the lives of those affected. Integrative approaches to CFS, which combine conventional medical treatments with complementary therapies, provide a holistic and personalized pathway to managing the condition. By incorporating strategies such as nutrition, exercise, stress management, and complementary therapies, CFS patients can work towards improving their overall health and well-being. Early detection and a comprehensive treatment plan tailored to the individual's unique needs are essential to achieving the best possible outcomes. By embracing an integrative approach to CFS, patients can gain a sense of empowerment and hope on their journey toward symptom management and improved quality of life.

The information provided is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always consult with your doctor or other qualified healthcare provider before taking any dietary supplement or making any changes to your diet or exercise routine.
Learn More
No items found.

Lab Tests in This Article

Subscribe to the Magazine for free to keep reading!
Subscribe for free to keep reading, If you are already subscribed, enter your email address to log back in.
Thanks for subscribing!
Oops! Something went wrong while submitting the form.
Are you a healthcare practitioner?
Thanks for subscribing!
Oops! Something went wrong while submitting the form.