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Reference Guide


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According to the American Heart Association, the leading cause of death in the United States is cardiovascular disease. The WHO notes that cardiovascular diseases lead to 17.9 million deaths each year making it the leading cause of death worldwide. Cardiovascular diseases include conditions that impact the heart and blood vessels such as cerebrovascular disease (stroke) and coronary heart disease (which can lead to a heart attack). 

When possible, preventing a cardiovascular event is preferred. As such, cardiovascular tests focus on factors which have been implicated in cardiovascular disease such as lipids, inflammation, and glucose. The CDC has noted health conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and obesity as risk factors for cardiovascular disease, along with lifestyle practices of smoking, physical inactivity, and poor/unhealthy diet. Based on CDC studies, high blood pressure impacts 116 million US adults with 7 of 10 people who have a heart attack having high blood pressure.

What do Cardiovascular Tests measure?

A variety of cardiovascular tests are available through Rupa Health evaluating heart and blood vessel health and assessing for disease risk.

Some examples from this category include:

In addition to the cardiovascular tests, a physical examination and health history are important in determining a potential diagnosis. Depending on the results, other blood and diagnostic tests may be required for follow-up, monitoring, or to support a diagnosis. It is also beneficial to  determine any other factors that may have led to poor cardiovascular health such as inflammation, oxidative stress, metabolic status, thyroid functioning, nutrient levels, and diabetic health.

Treatment Plans

Test results will help determine treatment plans, from reducing risk of cardiovascular disease to a care plan to monitor and treat heart disease. Treatment plans will often include medication, lifestyle changes, and possible medical procedures depending on the cardiovascular event such as cardiac catheterizations, angioplasty, stent placements.

Some treatment plans may include:

  • Medications
  • Diet changes to include healthy eating and reduction of added salt and sugar, increasing soluble fibers, decreasing alcohol consumption, and eliminating processed food
  • Lifestyle changes to include appropriate exercise, smoking cessation, decreasing stress, and achieving adequate sleep
  • Supplements to improve nutrient health such as omega-3 fatty acids, magnesium, coenzyme Q10, vitamin D
  • Weight management
  • Quality patient care for individuals with diabetes and hypertension


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