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Reference Guide


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The American Thyroid Association estimates that 20 million Americans have some form of thyroid disease, with one in eight women developing a thyroid disorder in their lifetime. Almost 60 percent of people who have thyroid disease are not aware of their condition.

The thyroid, a small butterfly-shaped gland in front of the neck, produces hormones that control the body’s metabolism of transforming food into energy and impacts every cell in the body. 

Thyroid disease usually presents as conditions of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, caused by a variety of issues such as autoimmunity, infections, surgery, radiation, or inherited. With hyperthyroidism conditions, too much hormone is available which increases metabolism causing increased heart rates, weight loss, and tiredness from rapid energy expenditure. Hypothyroidism conditions result from decreased hormones present which leads to tiredness from lack of energy, weight gain, and inability to tolerate cold temperatures. 

Thyroid testing can provide information on the health status of thyroid and the amount of hormones being produced, thereby supporting diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease.

What do thyroid tests measure?

Thyroid tests measure the hormones pertinent to thyroid functioning and include thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), active hormone T3 and inactive hormone T4. A variety of tests are available through Rupa Health, including the following:

In addition to the thyroid tests, a physical examination, a health and family history, and a history of symptoms can help guide diagnosis. Depending on results, additional tests such as a complete blood count, liver enzyme tests, gut microbiome, and adrenal and stress testing can be helpful.

Treatment Plans

Treatment is dependent on the cause and aims to support balancing thyroid hormones. Some treatment plans include:

  • Diets to decrease inflammation
  • Nutrients to support thyroid function such as iodine, iron, tyrosine, zinc, selenium, magnesium and vitamins E, B2, B3, B6, C, and D
  • Restoring gut health with probiotic-rich foods
  • Manage stress and optimize sleep
  • Ensure the environment is clear of thyroid-stressing pollutants

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